By John W. Egan on April 14th, 2016
Seyfarth Synopsis: NYC recently passed a law requiring that its government agency websites meet accessibility standards. Other state and local governments may follow NYC’s lead and enact accessibility standards for government agencies, contractors and even public accommodations in the absence of regulations from DOJ.
On March 14, New York City became the first major municipality in the United States to adopt legislation mandating accessibility standards for all of its government agency websites. Serving a population of over 8 million, the New York City government includes more than 120 agencies staffed by approximately 325,000 employees. This legislation will have an impact on City agencies, and access for persons with disabilities to those institutions. It may also have an impact on future website regulations impacting businesses across the country.
Recent NYC Legislation
The website legislation (Intro. 683-A) was among three disability access bills that Mayor Bill De Blasio signed into law on the same day. In addition to mandating website protocols, the legislation requires that each City agency designate a “disability service facilitator,” and publicize, among other things, the availability of wheelchair access, communication access real-time translation, sign language interpretation, assistive listening systems (e.g. loop technology), and any other accommodations to be made available for all public events. This sweeping legislative mandate also expressly requires that City government websites display New York State’s controversial “Accessible Icon” (rather than the International Symbol of Access), to designate venues for government meetings or other events that are accessible to wheelchair users.
NYC Must Adopt an Accessible Website Protocol within 6 Months
The new City law underscores that the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 Level AA (“WCAG 2.0 AA”) is increasingly becoming the de facto standard for website accessibility, despite the continued lack of any regulations from the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”) setting a legally-required standard for state and local governments under Title II of the ADA, or for public accommodations (i.e. private businesses) under Title III.
Under the new law, the City must establish a website protocol within 6 months that incorporates: (1) Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act (“Section 508”); (2) WCAG 2.0 AA; or (3) any “successor” standards. The Section 508 standard applies to the federal government websites and consists of a list of 16 requirements that are less rigorous than WCAG 2.0 AA. But last year the Access Board proposed a rule that would, among other things, adopt WCAG 2.0 AA as the new website standard under Section 508. Thus, if the City incorporates Section 508 in its website protocol, its agency websites may be subject to WCAG 2.0 Level AA once the final Section 508 regulations are issued.
There are several exceptions to the new accessibility mandate. The City may adopt protocols that differ from Section 508, WCAG 2.0 AA, or any successor standard, but if it does, it must first consult with experts in website design, conduct a public hearing, and ensure that any differences will still provide effective communication for persons with disabilities. In addition, the law does not require the “fundamental alteration” of any service, program, or activity, and shall not impose an “undue financial or administrative burden.”
Potential Impact on Businesses
The adoption of accessibility standards for government websites in the most populous city in the United States is significant. Other municipalities may follow New York City’s lead and pass their own legislation or regulations for accessible features in government websites. This may result in differing local standards across jurisdictions, which would undermine DOJ’s efforts to implement a comprehensive, national set of rules for website accessibility under Title II of the ADA.
State and local legislators may decide to extend the WCAG 2.0 AA’s reach to the websites of private businesses doing business with state or local governments, or the public, after they are done dealing with their agency websites. This could follow the model of Ontario, Canada, where the provincial government enacted regulations requiring businesses with 50 or more employees in Ontario to ensure that their websites meet WCAG 2.0 Level A guidelines (and to meet WCAG 2.0 Level AA by 2021). Based on the progressive legislative and regulatory agenda of the current mayoral administration, we would not be surprised if New York City passed a future law requiring that government contractors or businesses with a presence in the City provide accessible websites.
The bottom line is that if DOJ continues to delay in issuing proposed rules for website accessibility, states and local governments may step into that void and enact rules of their own for government entities, contractors, and even public accommodations. This could subject businesses to potentially inconsistent rules across jurisdictions. It is yet another reason why DOJ guidance on this topic is needed now more than ever.
Edited by Minh Vu and Kristina Launey.